Download Applied Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers by I. M. Kutasov PDF

By I. M. Kutasov

The aim of utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is to provide in a transparent and concise shape tools of using the information of temperature surveys in deep boreholes in addition to the result of box, laboratory and analytical investigations in geothermics to a large viewers. even though a few features of the topic of this ebook were mentioned in numerous past books and various papers, utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is the 1st e-book in this subject to be had to the petroleum engineering neighborhood. the target of the ebook is to provide the nation of information and prediction of downhole and formations temperatures in the course of good drilling, good finishing touch, shut-in and creation. utilized Geothermics for Petroleum Engineers is meant for drilling engineers (impact of increased temperatures on good drilling and crowning glory expertise, Arctic drilling), creation engineers (temperature regime of creation, injection and geothermal partitions, Arctic production), reservoir engineers (temperature box of reservoirs, thermal homes of formations and formation fluids), good logging engineers (interpretation of electric resistance, dust density, and temperature logs), and geophysicists and geologists (interpretation of geophysical information, calculation of the terrestrial warmth circulate, reconstruction of earlier climates).

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5. r r 500 \ 400 Xm 500 _•x \ 6OO Fig. 10 Thermal warming model for the continuous permafrost zone (Osterkamp, 1984). 64) the minimum value of I, is when dr. 67) q For Prudhoe Bay, Alaska this simple model that illustrates the response of the permafrost to sudden change in the mean annum surface temperature is shown in Fig. 10. 5 m during the first 1800 years and is ignored in this graph. 68) where D is a constant, n can be any positive integer, and t is the time since the start of the warming; t - to represents the 34 CHAPTER 2 present day.

Dynamics of permafrost thickness- a schematic model. 58) O, at t > O, where lo is the initial depth of permafrost, To is the long-term mean annual temperature at t = 0, and V1 is the long-term mean annual temperature of the top of ice-bounded permafrost at t > 0. 59) where the dimensionless t i m e - Fourier number is Fo- air and a/ is the thermal diffusivity of ice-bounded permafrost. 59) is: Fb- dT~ -~X Ix=t~ V l t 2 ( T o - Yl) ~-~(-1) . 15 The temperatures of frozen formations near the permafrost base are close to 0~ Hence, the amount of heat which is consumed in warming the permafrost to the melting temperature is small and can be neglected.

Powell et al. 82) Straus and Schubert (1977) have shown that in a real case the value of Ra~ is considerably influenced by the variable physical properties and non-Boussinesq behavior of the fluid; in this case the temperature gradient must be specified. 17 shows how Rac - Ra~ varies with the temperature gradient and thickness of the formation in which the physical properties are temperature and pressure dependent. 44 CHAPTER 2 40 35 30 25 25 20 15 i00 _ 150 _ 200 10 I %00; oo; i 1 , i I ol h(km) bOO Fig.

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