By J. Patrick Reilly (auth.)
Electric currents and electromagnetic fields were utilized to organic platforms, quite people, with either healing and pathological effects. utilized Bioelectricity discusses organic responses to electrical currents and electromagnetic fields, together with clinical functions and surprise dangers. The ebook covers primary actual and engineering ideas of responses to temporary electric publicity and emphasizes human reactions, even supposing animal responses to electrical energy are regarded as good. The remedy covers reactions from the just-detectable to the basically dangerous. a massive new bankruptcy discusses criteria for human publicity to electromagnetic fields and electrical present and demonstrates how those criteria were built in response to the foundations handled in past chapters. J. Patrick Reilly is a member of the central employees of the Johns Hopkins college utilized Physics Laboratory and is President of Metatec Associates.
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Extra resources for Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology
Freiberger instead studied the correlation of impedance with body temperature after death, and used a temperature correction factor to relate the impedance of corpses to living persons. These correction factors were applied in Fig. 18 to the measurements on corpses for voltages above SOY; below SOY, the data were derived from measurements on living persons. 5 provides statistical data from Swiss and Austrian measurements at 50Hz (Biegelmeier, 1985c). Data are shown for total impedance (ZT) with large-area contacts on dry skin, and also for the body impedance component (RB)' Freiberger also determined the statistical distribution of 50-Hz impedance on corpses above SOV and on living persons below SOY.
14, the wet-contact conditions were obtained by soaking the bands in either tap water or a saline solution prior to the measurement. ----~ ........ 13. Oscillograms of applied voltage (upper trace) and body current (lower trace), with contact at the approximate peak of the voltage waveform; applied voltage = 200Vrms. ) 34 2. ----r--~ I 4 Average and range Dry )t" .... Tap;-.... 14. Impedance versus voltage for large-area hand-to-hand contacts. 15. Impedance versus voltage for large-area hand-to-feet contacts.
5, 32 2. Impedance and Current Distribution 15 ~ I 25 20 I B (left scale) <-E 10 a ::. ) a. " 10 5 E ...... 12. Breakdown of the skin at 50V. Forearm-to-forearm current path; circular electrodes, 12cm2; dry skin. 01 cm2 on each hand. Foot electrodes consisted of copper foil inserted into the shoes. 13 illustrates example current and voltage waveforms at the onset of a stimulus having a steady-state voltage and currene of 200V and 118mA, respectively (Biegelmeier, 1985a). Corresponding peak values were 280V and 370mA.
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