Download Analgesia by Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein PDF

By Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein

This quantity makes an attempt to summarize the present country of information on mechanisms underlying many of the results of analgesics, their aspect influence profiles, and their symptoms and contraindications in medical use. It additionally offers insights into present efforts to find novel mechanisms underlying the iteration of other kinds of soreness and the ensuing improvement of latest modulating compounds.

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Opioid Tolerance . . . . . . . In Vitro . . . . . . . . . In Vivo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Opioid Receptor Ligands and Sites of Action . Endogenous Ligands . . . . . . . Exogenous Ligands . . . . .

After opioid agonists bind to the receptor, dissociation of the trimeric G protein complex into Gα - and Gβγ -subunits can subsequently lead to the inhibition of cyclic 3 5 adenylyl cyclase (cAMP) and/or to direct interaction with K+ , Ca2+ , and other ion channels in the membrane (Fig. 2a). Ion-channel regulation by opioids 38 C. Zöllner · C. Stein is mainly mediated via direct G protein βγ-subunits (Herlitze et al. 1996). All three opioid receptors couple to various N, T-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, suppress Ca2+ influx and subsequently the excitation and/or neurotransmitter release in many neuronal systems.

3 Opioid Receptor Ligands and Sites of Action . Endogenous Ligands . . . . . . . Exogenous Ligands . . . . . . . . Sites of Action . . . . . . . . . Supraspinal and Spinal Sites . . . . . Peripheral Sites . . . . . . . . . Peripheral Opioid Receptors and Inflammation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Categories: Neurosurgery