By James R. Holton
During the prior decade, the technology of dynamic meteorology has persevered its quick strengthen. The scope of dynamic meteorology has broadened significantly. a lot of the cloth is predicated on a two-term path for seniors majoring in atmospheric sciences.
This e-book offers a cogent clarification of the basics of meteorology and explains hurricane dynamics for weather-oriented meteorologists. It discusses weather dynamics and the results posed for worldwide switch. the hot variation has additional a spouse web site with MATLAB routines and up to date remedies of numerous key topics.
- Provides transparent actual motives of key dynamical principles
- Contains a wealth of illustrations to explain textual content and equations, plus end-of-chapter problems
- Holton is among the major experts in modern meteorology, and renowned for his transparent writing style
- Instructor's handbook to be had to adopters
NEW during this EDITION
- A better half site with MATLAB® routines and demonstrations
- Updated remedies on weather dynamics, tropical meteorology, center surroundings dynamics, and numerical prediction
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Fifth Edition
34) Thus, in the isobaric coordinate system the horizontal pressure gradient force is measured by the gradient of geopotential at constant pressure. Density no longer appears explicitly in the pressure gradient force; this is a distinct advantage of the isobaric system. 3 A Generalized Vertical Coordinate Any single-valued monotonic function of pressure or height may be used as the independent vertical coordinate. For example, in many numerical weather prediction models, pressure normalized by the pressure at the ground, , is used as a vertical coordinate.
Along a surface of constant geopotential), there must be a net horizontal force directed poleward along the horizontal to sustain the horizontal component of the centripetal acceleration. This force arises because rotating Earth is not a sphere but has assumed the shape of an oblate spheroid in which there is a poleward component of gravitation along a constant geopotential surface just sufficient to account for the poleward component of the centripetal acceleration at each latitude for an object at rest on the surface of Earth.
This choice guarantees that the ground is a coordinate surface even in the presence of spatial and temporal surface pressure variations. Thus, this so-called σ coordinate system is particularly useful in regions of strong topographic variations. We now obtain a general expression for the horizontal pressure gradient, which is applicable to any vertical coordinate s = s(x,y,z,t) that is a single-valued monotonic function of height. 11 Transformation of the pressure gradient force to s coordinates.