By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This ebook reports present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation achieving the Earth's floor. It encompasses a record of techniques that can support to farther enhance wisdom during this area.
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Extra resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
It can be seen from the curves shown in Fig. R. Cotton, S. Yuter Fig. 5 Variations of the relative humidity and supersaturation adjacent to droplets of (1) pure water (blue), and adjacent to solution droplets containing the following fixed masses of salt: (2) 10À19 kg of NaCl (red), (3) 10À18 kg of NaCl (orange), (4) 10À17 kg of NaCl (brown), (5) 10À19 kg of (NH4)2SO4 (green), and (6) 10À18 kg of (NH4)2SO4 (violet). e. 100%). As a droplet increases in size, the lowering of the equilibrium vapour pressure above its surface due to the dissolved material becomes increasingly less and the equilibrium vapour pressure over a small curved droplet (Kelvin curvature effect) becomes the dominant influence.
Further evidence of the possible role of evaporation nucleation has been presented by Field et al. (2001) and Cotton and Field (2002). They show observational evidence, and supporting parcel modeling calculations from wave cloud studies, that suggest ice had to form close to the downstream edge of wave cloud. Ice production coincident with the start of the liquid cloud, or earlier, would have suppressed the observed liquid cloud. Rapid ice crystal concentration enhancement versus expected IN concentrations in cumulus cloud were also observed to originate in close proximity to regions of cloud evaporation (Hobbs and Rangno 1985, 1990; Rangno and Hobbs 1994).
As the droplet grows by condensation alone, the rate of increase in the radius slows (Fig. 13). However, after a droplet has reached a radius of 20 mm its collision efficiency increases rapidly with increasing size (Fig. 13), so the droplet grows increasingly fast by collision. Moreover, as droplets get larger their cross sectional areas and fall velocities increase thereby increasing the collection kernel between large and small drops. Were it not for the fact that growth by collisions takes over as growth by condensation becomes negligible, many clouds would not rain.