Download A Concise Text-book of Organic Chemistry by C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb PDF

By C. G. Lyons, S. McLintock, Nora H. Lumb

A Concise Text-Book of natural Chemistry is a convenient consultant for chemistry scholars getting ready for complex point certificate. the character of natural chemistry, in comparison with that of inorganic chemistry, is essentially the chemistry of carbon. The e-book specializes in the preparations and alterations of the atoms contained in the carbon molecules. The molecular formulation of natural compounds are as a result studied, together with alkanes and their derivatives referred to as aliphatic or fatty acids, in addition to the hydrocarbons of the benzene sequence and derivatives referred to as the fragrant compounds. The aliphatic amines as derivatives of ammonia caused by the substitution of the hydrogen atoms by means of alkyl teams are defined. The formulation for methane, even supposing at the moment is handy for normal reasons, is proven to be now not a real consultant of the particular association during which 4 H radicals are grouped round the carbon atom. Castor oil, linseed, and different drying oils also are tested by way of their glyceride (of different lengthy chain unsaturated acids) content material. Carbohydrates, divided as monosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycosides, are mentioned as to their empirical composition. the different equipment and reagents for synthesizing natural compounds are defined, utilizing the straightforward aliphatic natural compounds for instance. The fragrant sequence of natural compounds, akin to the benzene sequence of hydrocarbons, and the fragrant sulfonic acids, phenols, and ethers are then analyzed. This ebook is acceptable for college kids of natural chemistry and for these getting ready for checks within the common certificates of schooling and for the standard nationwide certificates. Readers regarding agricultural, clinical, pharmaceutical, and technological and technical classes can locate this advisor proper.

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Example text

Phosphorus trichloride, phosphorus pentachloride, or red phosphorus with either bromine or iodine) react with substances containing a hydroxyl group to replace that group by a halogen atom. The alcohols react to give the alkyl hahdes. 3C2H5OH + PCI3 = 3C2H5CI + H3PO3 T H E ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS A N D E T H E R S 45 (3) Esterification, Alcohols react with acids to form compounds which are called esters. This reaction, which is called esterification, is reversible; therefore a state of chemical equihbrium is eventually reached.

C H 2 ( C H 2 V C H 2 . . Monomer Polymer The "plastics" industry has also developed materials of high molecular weight by other types of chemical reaction. These may involve the ehmination of some other substance during the joining together of the simpler components and the products are therefore not actually "polymers" as defined above. However, the processes have become known as condensation polymeriza­ tions and typical examples are found in the manufacture of nylon (p. 128) and terylene (p.

The melt­ ing and boiling points of the halogen derivatives are higher than those of the corresponding hydrocarbon, those of the iodine derivatives being the highest. The specific gravities are greater than those of the correspond­ ing hydrocarbons in the order iodide > bromide > chloride, but they decrease gradually as the number of carbon atoms in the molecule increases. Di-halogen and higher derivatives have higher melting and boiling points and specific gravities than the corresponding mono derivatives.

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